The Ship Angel Gabriel

The ebook Angel Gabriel by Warren C. Riess has data of interest to the descendants of the a few Burnham boys, John, Thomas, and Robert, who traveled from England to the New Environment on the ship Angel Gabriel.

On August 15, 1635 the Bristol Merchantman Angel Gabriel, conveying settlers and supplies to the New Earth, wrecked around the Pemaquid settlement in present-working day Bristol, Maine. Settlements like this one particular ended up started, provided, and guarded with early seventeenth-century armed service provider ships. Most of the ships have been three-masted, large-sided vessels, right now referred to as ship-rigged English galleons. A single these types of ship was the Angel Gabriel that wrecked through the devastating hurricane of 1635 at the Pemaquid settlement in Maine.

Three distinct ships named Angel Gabriel have been mentioned in English data from the 1600s. The initial definite reference to the Angel Gabriel that wrecked at Pemaquid is observed in the Bristol Port Records of 1619. But proof indicates that she was at first named Starre, renamed Jason by Sir Walter Raleigh, and finally ordered by two retailers from Bristol, England, who subsequently improved her title to Angel Gabriel.

As the ship named Jason sailed with Raleigh’s next expedition to Guiana, in 1617 she was explained as a ship of 240 tons. Sources describe the Angel Gabriel as a 240 ton ship which was notably large in the early 1600s. In 1629 the age of Angel Gabriel was supplied as fourteen many years, which sales opportunities to a development day of somewhere around 1615. Accumulation of circumstantial proof implies that these 3 ships were one particular and the exact. No situated information contradicts this theory.

In the early 1600s, Sir Ferdinando Gorges was certain by John Smith’s arguments, that colonization of New England would be a successful enterprise. The settlements could be financed by a fishing and timber sector that would fill returning emigrant and supply ships with important cargoes of dried cod and wonderful timbers. From the Council for New England, Gorges secured a patent from King James in 1620 for the land between the St. Lawrence River and current day Philadelphia. In change, Robert Aldworth and Giles Elbridge been given a patent in 1632 from Gorges’s Council (which administered the New England Enterprise) for 1,200 acres all around their trading settlement at Pemaquid, in what is now Bristol, Maine.

With the arrival in Massachusetts Bay of extra than 1,000 settlers, the Terrific Migration started in earnest. It was a ten years of ship right after ship of English people leaving overcrowded, socially rigid England for the land and relative freedoms of New England. Most of them emigrated to what is now Massachusetts, but many others settled in cities farther south and north.

Throughout the summer months of 1635 Elbridge sent Angel Gabriel to Pemaquid with settlers and materials. Regretably, the merchants’ data and the Bristol port information are not able to be located for this time period of time, but Richard Mather’s journal and genealogical documents of immigrants give many information of the voyage and aftermath. Richard Mather, was a devout Puritan minister who endured religious persecution in Anglican England. In 1635 he prepared to emigrate from Bristol to Massachusetts on the more compact service provider ship James. Richard Mather became the minister of Dorchester in the Colony of Massachusetts, his son the Reverend Improve Mather, D. D., the foreseeable future President of Harvard College or university, and the grandfather of Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather, minister of Boston. On May possibly 26, 1635, though waiting around on board James at Kings Street, just down the Avon River from Bristol, he wrote, “The Tuesday morning… another ship, also sure for New-England, came unto us which other ship was named the Angel Gabriel.”

3 other ships joined Angel Gabriel and James at Kings Highway for the Atlantic crossing. They set sail on June 4, but a opposite wind pressured them to anchor in the lee of Lundy Island, at the entrance to the Bristol Channel, for four times. They then proceeded to Milford Haven, an fantastic harbor in Wales, to await favorable winds, which at last arrived on June 22. The 5 ships sailed together from Milford Haven on that Monday morning right before a sturdy east wind, trying to keep near alongside one another for the initially day in worry of “Turkish” pirates who have been raiding Bristol transport at the time.

Quoting from Richard Mather’s journal:

This working day, at evening, we shed sight of the 3 ships certain for Newfoundland, which experienced been in organization with us from Kings Road: and our learn imagined it most effective for us to keep for the Angel Gabriel, staying bound for New England, as we were being, fairly than depart her and go with the other a few. The Angel Gabriel is a sturdy ship, and nicely furnished with fourteen and sixteen items of ordnance, and for that reason our seamen fairly sought after her organization, but nevertheless she is sluggish in sailing, and hence we went from time to time with a few sails fewer than we may have carried out, so that we might not above go her.

Passengers to the New World paid a significant sum for the crossing, but most experienced no far better quarters than the crew. The voyage usually price five or 6 lbs for every adult, which bundled really standard foodstuff. This was a substantial sum of revenue, perhaps symbolizing many years of conserving for an regular Englishman. There ended up no specific cabins built for them, so to snooze they would discover room among decks where they could in between the guns, cargo, and other travellers. If there had been only a handful of passengers, they may be berthed in the wonderful cabin or just one deck beneath in close proximity to the tiller (hence the phrase in steering).

In the 1630s many publications were being in print to suggest settlers what clothes, meals, equipment, and weapons to bring for their voyage and their farms in The us. Writers prompt that emigrants carry more, greater food items for the voyage, which include live animals when attainable (and provisions for the same) to take in on the journey and to start off their farms in The united states. For the latter, reside animals were being obtainable in the recognized American settlements, but at a steep value. They suggested bringing a year’s supply of these kinds of staples as flour, peas, oil, vinegar, oatmeal, gun powder, and musket shot. All way of farming instruments and kitchen area utensils ended up important and higher body armor was suggested. Together, these might price in between 10 and fifteen pounds, in addition shipping and delivery costs of amongst a single and two pounds.

Shortly right after June 29, all those on James made the decision that it was safe and sound plenty of to go away the slower Angel Gabriel behind and, taking edge of a solid wind, parted business. Nonetheless, once they attained The united states, contrary winds together “the key” expense them a week of tough sailing to continue a hundred miles. On Friday, August 14 James sailed into the harbor at the Isles of Shoals, a group of small islands off Portsmouth, New Hampshire and Kittery, Maine. Roughly eighty miles to the northeast, on the identical working day, Angel Gabriel sailed north into John’s Bay between Pemaquid Stage on the east and Thrumcap Island on the west. The Travellers would have seen the Pemaquid Peninsula mainly covered with tall trees and lined by a steep, rocky shore for two miles. Then they would have noticed a smaller Pemaquid Indian encampment near a sandy beach front. Just beyond that, at the northeast corner of John’s Bay, was Pemaquid Harbor, protected by modest islands and ledges. Elbridge’s little settlement lay at the shores of the harbor. In 1635 Pemaquid was the northeastern-most English settlement in The usa.

Together the northern New England coastline that evening anything seemed regular but as the crews of the two ships anchored for the evening, to their southwest a deadly storm was transferring up the coast. This was not a regular summertime storm, but a strong early-time hurricane, quite possibly the most powerful hurricane to strike New England in recorded time. It struck southern New England in the evening, producing a storm surge in Narragansett Bay fourteen feet previously mentioned the ordinary substantial tide line.

In Plymouth, William Bradford afterwards recorded:

This yr, the 14th or 15th of August was these a mighty storm of wind and rain as none residing in these parts, either English or Indians, ever saw. It started in the morning a very little before day, and grew not by levels but came with violence in the commencing, to the terrific amazement of numerous. It blew down sundry homes and uncovered some others. Divers vessels have been dropped at sea and lots of additional in extraordinary danger. It blew down a lot of hundred hundreds of trees, turning up the much better by the roots and breaking the increased pine trees off in the center.

The crew and terrified passengers on James had been helpless in the encounter of the storm, other than to go down below deck and pray for deliverance, which they did. Soon after remaining tossed and crushed by the storm for hrs, they survived and finally designed it to shore with their added sails. Things were even worse at the subsequent settlement, Pemaquid. There the storm possibly hit just following dawn getting the inhabitants and new arrivals, as all over the place else, entirely by surprise. Mather wrote:

And the Angel Gabriel, being then at anchor at Pemaquid, was burst in pieces and forged away in this storm, and most of the cattle and other merchandise, with one seaman and three or four travellers, did also perish therein.

Some community lore maintains that most of the passengers and crew arrived ashore over rocks in the eye of the storm, when Angel Gabriel wrecked on possibly Fish Issue or on the rocks by the stays of Fort William Henry. Mather and Trelawny claimed the ship at anchor at the Pemaquid settlement when the hurricane struck. Staying Elbridge’s ship she was most possible bringing supplies to their buying and selling settlement. This could imply at least a couple of times of unloading, and lots of passengers and most of the crew may thus have been ashore for the night time when the storm struck early in the morning of August 15, 1635.

A record of crew or passengers aboard Angel Gabriel has not been situated, but a blend of archival data and recorded relatives lore show 20-6 of those aboard – 20-5 passengers and the captain. Though Mather mentions a hundred travellers aboard the James, the assumption ought to not be produced that the 240 ton Angel Gabriel experienced a similar amount of passengers. Elbridge experienced a developing trade settlement to provide at Pemaquid, and might have located transporting his very own products more financially rewarding than delivery settlers’ possessions and supplies. In addition, the house expected for fourteen or sixteen guns and their products would have been a main thing to consider on the primary deck, where by passengers generally were being berthed. Elbridge may have transported only a handful of travellers with their belongings as space permitted. These days, primary archival data assistance only the existence of the Cogswell family members, William Furber, and Samuel Haines.

Other folks outlined are derived from materials in loved ones genealogies.

Andrews, possibly Robert Andrews

John Bailey

John Jr.


Ralph Blaesdell (42)

Elizabeth (wife)

Henry (3)

Thomas Bradbury

John Burnham

Thomas Burnham (16)

Robert Burnham (11)

John Cogswell

Elizabeth Cogswell (spouse)

William (16)

John Jr. (12)

Edward (6)

Mary (16)





William Furber (21)

Samuel Haines (33)

Henry Simpson

John Tuttle (17)

Temporary Details about Some of the Passengers


I could not obtain archival content about the ship’s master (captain), but a secondary source statements that Robert Andrews, uncle of John and Thomas Burnham was grasp of the ship when she was missing. Robert Andrews was born in Norwich, England and was married to an Elizabeth. Even so, the exact Robert Andrews presently was dwelling at Ipswich, Massachusetts in 1635, was granted freeman standing (a single who could vote and maintain business) in Could 1635, and was specified a license to operate an inn on his farm in September 1635. It is doable, that this Andrews was Angel Gabriel’s master. He may have been dwelling in Ipswich and made a spherical excursion to England, returning as the ship’s master.


Relatives genealogies, but no principal archival documents, relate that John Bailey, a weaver from Chippenham, remaining his spouse Elizabeth and three kids in England and took passage aboard Angel Gabriel with his son John Jr. and daughter Joanna. They lived in what turned Newbury, Massachusetts for two several years immediately after the wreck. In 1637 they settled on a fifty-acre plot on the banking companies of the Merrimac River in Salisbury where by John fished and farmed. John Jr. And Joanna inevitably left Salisbury and moved back throughout the river to Newbury. John Jr. married Eleanor Emery and Joanna married William Harrington or Huntington. Elizabeth, John Sr.’s wife who had stayed in England, under no circumstances came to The usa. Loved ones lore relates that the household was so terrified by the hurricane experience that neither group would cross the Atlantic to be with the other. Patricia Bailey, a existing-day member of the spouse and children and singer, has composed a touching ballad of the family’s terrible ordeal.


Details from the Cogswell’s account of their journey offers some attention-grabbing insights. Mr. Cogswell took with him other than his spouse and eight sons and daughters, many farm and residence servants, an sum of worthwhile furniture, farming implements, housekeeping utensils, and a significant sum of cash. He mentioned in his writings, “the Angel Gabriel grew to become a total wreck, passengers, cattle, and merchandise had been all cast upon the angry waves.” Mr. Cogswell and his family members arrived at the shore with their lives, but well drenched by the sea and despoiled of valuables to the sum of 5 thousand pounds sterling. They were being far more privileged than some who sailed with them, whom the offended waves collected to a watery grave. On leaving England Mr. Cogswell experienced taken together with him a big tent, which now came into great support. This they pitched, and into it they collected on their own and this sort of stores as they could rescue from the waves. The darkness of that to start with night of the Cogswells in The us identified them housed beneath a tent on the seashore. The subsequent working day they picked up what extra of their goods they could, which experienced arrive ashore in the course of the night or lay floating about on the drinking water. As soon as probable Mr. Cogswell, leaving his family, took passage for Boston. He there made a contract with a sure Capt. Gallup, who commanded a modest barque, to sail for Pemaquid and transportation his family to Ipswich, Massachusetts.

It is hard for us to picture the scene of the storm. It was not abnormal for people on the shore to check out a ship crack into numerous pieces and crew and travellers thrown into the wild sea as they have been helpless to give any kind of rescue. Traces of this storm remained for many years. In wondering how Robert Andrews and his a few nephews attained Ipswich, one particular descendant residing presently in Essex said that they walked all the way. What an introduction to The us and their new experience for these 3 English boys!

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